Full-time Professors

Wei-Kuang Liang

Associate Professor/Director

Office: Room S5-606, Science Building 5
Tel: (03) 4227151#65212
Fax: (03) 4263502
Website 》

Research Directions

I currently have an active laboratory working on computational and applied neuroscience. I develop and apply various Adaptive Data Analysis methods [e.g., Holo-Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HHSA, recently developed by Norden E. Huang, see the 2016 special issue on Adaptive Data Analysis in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London), Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT), Event-Related Mode (ERM) analysis, and intrinsic Multiscale Entropy (iMSE)] for studying neural mechanisms underlying EEG/MEG signals in cognitive neuroscience. In addition, I used neural modulating techniques such as noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS, e.g., Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Transcranial Direct/Alternating Current Stimulation) and mindfulness meditation, to probe the neural mechanisms of attention, inhibitory control, and visual working memory for adults, elders, preschoolers, and patients. I currently have a long-term collaboration with Professor Norden E. Huang and Professor Chung-Kang Peng (Harvard Medical School), to apply or adapt their innovative methods (e.g. HHSA, and MSE) to cognitive neuroscience. In the fundamental aspect of these methods, for example, I customized the original HHSA for EEG/MEG multi-electrode data and extended it to a source-level representation to produce a 3D (XYZ) + 3D (AM, Frequency, and Time) dynamic brain tomographic image to explore issues in cognitive neuroscience. I also add new members to the family of Adaptive Data Analysis methods. For instance, I developed a connectivity analysis based on HHSA, to better understand the intersite cross-frequency coupling in brain networks during cognitive processes (under review). In the aspect of application, I have an ongoing collaboration with the Neurological Institute of Taipei Veterans General Hospital (collaborative laboratories led by Dr. Shuu-Jiun Wang, and Dr. I-Hui Lee), to develop a new HHSA-based diagnostic method for migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson's disease, major depression, and stroke. In addition, I have a special interest in studying individual differences in personality traits and mindfulness meditation by using these Adaptive Data Analysis methods.

My current research areas are
(i) Investigating the neural correlates of visual working memory and individual differences in working memory capacity by HHSA/HHT. Our current findings indicate that both the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral parietal brain regions have strong interactive amplitude modulation in brainwaves for memory retention (under revision). These results have verified several working memory findings revealed by invasive techniques such as electrocorticogram (e.g. Canolty et al., 2006; Fell and Axmacher, 2011). This is also the very first time a detailed demonstration of amplitude modulation mechanisms with non-invasive human EEG in a whole-brain level. One set of results that used Adaptive Data Analysis methods to investigate individual differences in personality traits and mindfulness meditation has been published in the Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 2019, Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, and Frontiers in Psychology 2018. All the HHSA/HHT results for cognitive functions are under review or in preparation and will appear in 2021.

(ii) Developing an efficient HHSA-based biomarker for migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson's disease, major depression, and stroke. Our preliminary results show that AD can be characterized by deficits in amplitude modulation in the gamma frequency band, whereas PD can be categorized by excessive amplitude modulation in the gamma rhythms. For migraine, we found several biomarkers that can be used to diagnose migraine with and without aura, and predict the efficiency of medication for chronic migraine by pre-med EEG. In major depression, excessive amplitude modulation in the beta rhythms was observed. Some of these results are in preparation and will appear in 2021.

(iii) Using Multiscale Entropy (MSE) to quantify the degree of complexity and adaptability of the brain during cognitive processes. This application of MSE for cognitive neuroscience has produced several important issues: 1) For inhibitory control & tDCS, we found that neural processes behind successful impulse control are usually accompanied by higher MSE values, and tDCS can efficiently elevate MSE during such process, thereby improving the ability of inhibitory control (a hypothesis and brief literature review of this relationship between tDCS and MSE has been published in Journal of Neuroscience and Neuroengineering; the concrete results have been published in NeuroImage 2014 and Entropy 2015); 2) For sport and exercise, we found a close relationship between aerobic exercise modulates transfer and brain signal complexity following cognitive training (the result has been published in Biological Psychology 2019 and Neuroscience 2020); 3) In the elderly population, we observed a beneficial effect of physical activity on the aging brain in terms of brain signal complexity (these results have been published in Brain and Cognition 2014).

(iv) Using time-frequency analysis (e.g. Fast Fourier Transform, Wavelet Analysis, and Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT)) to investigate oscillatory features in EEG/MEG data. I employ these techniques to analyze brain signals from healthy subjects, elders, children, athletes, and patients with Alzheimer's disease, depression, migraine, etc. Published results that employed these techniques: 1) A study that revealed the electrophysiological correlates of working memory-load effects in a symmetry span task with HHT method (Frontiers in Physiology 2019); 2) A series of athlete’s studies that demonstrated the relationship between theta oscillatory power and athletes’ performance in exercise (Psychology of Sport & Exercise 2015; Psychophysiology 2015); 3) A developmental study that investigated the importance of beta oscillatory power in the neural development of preschoolers (Developmental Neuropsychology 2012).

(v)  Using stochastic optimal control theory to model TMS saccade data (including the effect of visual target change and visual distractors, one result has been published in the Journal of Neurophysiology 2012);

(vii) Using “Amplitude Modulated” Transcranial Alternative Current Stimulation (AM-tACS) to selectively and precisely facilitate/inhibit brain functions by generating stimulation current according to the brain oscillatory pattern obtained by HHSA. This method of brain stimulation is a revolutionary protocol that can be used to efficiently change the state of the brain.

Taken together, my aim of research is to build a family of Adaptive Data Analysis methods tailored to cognitive neuroscience, as well as the know-how of applying these methods to understand neural mechanisms of cognitive functions.


  1. Wei-Kuang Liang*, Philip Tseng, Jia-Rong Yeh, Norden E Huang, Chi-Hung Juan, 2021/04, Frontoparietal beta amplitude modulation and its interareal cross-frequency coupling in visual working memory, NEUROSCIENCE, 460 69-87, (SCI:IF=3.59 RANK:142/277 in NEUROSCIENCES) (Corresponding Author).
  2. Andrew J. Quinn, Vítor Lopes-dos-Santos, Norden Huang, Wei-Kuang Liang, Chi-Hung Juan, Jia-Rong Yeh, Anna C. Nobre, David Dupret, and Mark W. Woolrich, 2021/09, Within-cycle instantaneous frequency profiles report oscillatory waveform dynamics, Journal of Neurophysiology, 2021 126:4, 1190-1208, (SCI:IF=2.234).
  3. Chi-Hung Juan, Kien Trong Nguyen, Wei-Kuang Liang, Andrew J Quinn, Yen-Hsun Chen, Neil G, Muggleton, Jia-Rong Yeh, Mark W Woolrich, Anna C Nobre, Norden E Huang, 2021/08, Revealing the Dynamic Nature of Amplitude Modulated Neural Entrainment With Holo-Hilbert Spectral Analysis, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 15 977, (SCI:IF=4.677 RANK:88/277 in NEUROSCIENCES).
  4. Trung Van Nguyen, Prasad Balachandran, Neil G Muggleton, Wei-Kuang Liang, Chi-Hung Juan, 2021/04, Dynamical EEG Indices of Progressive Motor Inhibition and Error-Monitoring, Brain Sciences, 11, (SCI:IF=3.394 RANK:158/277 in NEUROSCIENCES)
  5. Chong-Chih Tsai, Wei-Kuang Liang*, 2021/03, Event-related components are structurally represented by intrinsic event-related potentials, Scientific Reports, 11 1 5670, (SCI:IF=4.379 RANK:18/83 in MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES) (Corresponding Author).
  6. Trung Van Nguyen, Che-Yi Hsu, Satish Jaiswal, Neil G Muggleton, Wei-Kuang Liang, Chi-Hung Juan*, 2021/01, To go or not to go: degrees of dynamic inhibitory control revealed by the function of grip force and early electrophysiological indices, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15 614978, (SCI:IF=3.169 RANK:27/77 in PSYCHOLOGY).


  1. Chun-Hao Wang, Chih-Chun Lin, David Moreau, Cheng-Ta Yang, Wei-Kuang Liang, 2020/11, Neural correlates of cognitive processing capacity in elite soccer players, BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 157, 107971, (SCI:IF=3.251 RANK:4/14 in PSYCHOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL).
  2. I-Ju Kuo, Chih-Wei Tang, Yun-An Tsai, Shuen-Chang Tang, Chun-Jen Lin, Shih-Pin Hsu, Wei-Kuang Liang, Chi-Hung Juan, Catharina Zich, Charlotte J Stagg, I-Hui Lee, 2020/06, Neurophysiological signatures of hand motor response to dual-transcranial direct current stimulation in subacute stroke: a TMS and MEG study, Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 17 1 1-12, (SCI:IF=4.262 RANK:4/68 in REHABILITATION).
  3. Chun-Hao Wang*, Wei-Kuang Liang*, David Moreau, 2020/01, Differential Modulation of Brain Signal Variability During Cognitive Control in Athletes with Different Domains of Expertise, NEUROSCIENCE, 425 267-279, (SCI:IF=3.59 RANK:142/277 in NEUROSCIENCES) (Co-corresponding Author).


  1. Nguyen, K., Liang, WK, Muggleton, N. G., Huang, N. E., Juan, CH*, 2019/12, Human visual steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated flicker: Latency measurement, JOURNAL OF VISION, 19 14 1–17, (SCI:IF=2.145 RANK:27/60 in OPHTHALMOLOGY).
  2. Kien Trong Nguyen, Wei-Kuang Liang, Victor Lee, Wen-Sheng Chang, Neil G Muggleton, Jia-Rong Yeh, Norden E Huang, Chi-Hung Juan* (2019, Nov). Unraveling nonlinear electrophysiologic processes in the human visual system with full dimension spectral analysis. Scientific Reports, 9 (1), 1-13 (SCI, IF: 4.011; RANK: 16/78 in MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES).
  3. Satish Jaiswal, Shao-Yang Tsai, Chi-Hung Juan, Neil G Muggleton, Wei-Kuang Liang* (2019, Jun). Low delta and high alpha power are associated with better conflict control and working memory in high mindfulness, low anxiety individuals. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 14 (6), 645-655 (Corresponding Author; SCI, IF: 3.662; RANK: 10/89 in PSYCHOLOGY, EXPERIMENTAL).
  4. Chun-Hao Wang, David Moreau, Cheng-Ta Yang, Yun-Yen Tsai, Jui-Tang Lin, Wei-Kuang Liang*, Chia-Liang Tsai* (2019, May). Aerobic exercise modulates transfer and brain signal complexity following cognitive training. BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY, 144, 85-98 (Co-corresponding Author; SCI, IF: 2.627; RANK: 27/89 in PSYCHOLOGY, EXPERIMENTAL).
  5. Kai-Yu Chuang, Yi-Hsiu Chen, Prasad Balachandran, Wei-Kuang Liang, Chi-Hung Juan* (2019, Apr). Revealing the electrophysiological correlates of working memory-load effects in symmetry span task with HHT method. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, 855 (SCI, IF: 3.201 RANK: 26/83 in PHYSIOLOGY).


  1. Satish Jaiswal, Shao-Yang Tsai, Chi-Hung Juan, Wei-Kuang Liang*, Neil G Muggleton* (2018, Jun). Better Cognitive Performance Is Associated With the Combination of High Trait Mindfulness and Low Trait Anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 627 (Co-corresponding Author; SSCI, IF: 2.129; RANK: 42/139 in PSYCHOLOGY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY ).
  2. Shao-Yang Tsai, Satish Jaiswal, Chi-Fu Chang, Wei-Kuang Liang*, Neil G Muggleton, Chi-Hung Juan* (2018, May). Meditation Effects on the Control of Involuntary Contingent Reorienting Revealed with Electroencephalographic and Behavioral Evidence. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, 12, PMCID: PMC5962705 (Co-corresponding Author; SCI, IF: 2.81; RANK: 15/54 in BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES).


  1. Yi-Chun Tsai, Hsin-Jie Lu, Chi-Fu Chang, Wei-Kuang Liang, Neil G. Muggleton, Chi-Hung Juan* (2017, Oct). Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence reveals the effects of trait anxiety on contingent attentional capture. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 17(5), 973-983 (SCI, IF:2.565; RANK: 23/52 in BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES).


  1. Philip Tseng, Yu-Ting Chang, Chi-Fu Chang, Wei-Kuang Liang, and Chi-Hung Juan* (2016, Aug). The critical role of phase difference in gamma oscillation within the temporoparietal network for binding visual working memory. Scientific Reports 6: 32138 (SCI, IF: 4.259; RANK: 11/72 in MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES).
  2. Chi-Fu Chang, Wei-Kuang Liang*, Chiou-Lian Lai, Daisy L. Hung, Chi-Hung Juan* (2016, Jun). Theta Oscillation Reveals the Temporal Involvement of Different Attentional Networks in Contingent Reorienting. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 264. (Co-corresponding Author; SCI, IF: 3.209; RANK: 17/77 in PSYCHOLOGY).
  3. Chun-Hsien Hsu, Chia-Ying Lee*, Wei-Kuang Liang (2016, May). An improved method for measuring mismatch negativity using ensemble empirical mode decomposition. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 264: 78-85. (SCI, IF: 2.554; RANK: 37/81 in BIOCHEMICAL RESEARCH METHODS)
  4. Norden E*. Huang, Kun Hu, Albert C. C. Yang, Hsing-Chih Chang, Deng Jia, Wei-Kuang Liang, Jia Rong Yeh, Chu-Lan Kao, Chi-Hung Juan, Chung Kang Peng, Johanna H. Meijer, Yung-Hung Wang, Steven R. Long and Zhauhua Wu (2016, APR). On Holo-Hilbert Spectral Analysis: A Full-Information Spectral Representation for Nonlinear and Nonstationary Data. Phil Trans. Roy. Soc. 374 (2065), 20150206, Special Edition on Adaptive Data Analysis, ed. By Huang, N. E., Hou, T. Y. and Daubechies, I. (SCI, IF: 2.97; RANK: 13/63 in MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENCES)


  1. Shih-Lin Huang, Philip Tseng, Wei-Kuang Liang* (2015, OCT). Dynamical Change of Signal Complexity in the Brain During Inhibitory Control Processes. Entropy 17: 6834-6853. (Corresponding Author; SCI, IF: 1.743; RANK: 26/79 in PHYSICS, MULTIDISCIPLINARY)
  2. Chun-Hao Wang, Yu-Hui Lo, Chien-Yu Pan, Fu-Chen Chen, Wei-Kuang Liang, Chia-Liang Tsai* (2015, JUN). Frontal midline theta as a neurophysiological correlate for deficits of attentional orienting in children with developmental coordination disorder. Psychophysiology, 52: 801-812. (SCI, IF: 3.074; RANK: 15/86 in PSYCHOLOGY, EXPERIMENTAL).
  3. Chun-Hao Wang, Wei-Kuang Liang, Philip Tseng, Neil G. Muggleton, Chi-Hung Juan, Chia-Liang Tsai* (2015, APR). The relationship between aerobic fitness and neural oscillations during visuo-spatial attention in young adults. Experimental Brain Research, 233: 1069-1078. (SCI, IF: 2.057; RANK:176/260 in NEUROSCIENCES).
  4. Chun-Hao Wang; Chia-Liang Tsai; Kuo-Cheng Tu; Neil G. Muggleton; Chi-Hung Juan; Wei-Kuang Liang* (2015, MAR). Modulation of Brain Oscillations during Fundamental Visuo-spatial Processing: A Comparison between Female Collegiate Badminton Players and Sedentary Controls. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 16(3), 121-129. (Corresponding Author; SCI, IF: 2.605; RANK: 4/44 in HOSPITALITY, LEISURE, SPORT & TOURISM).
  5. 阮啟弘, 徐慈妤, 張期富, 曾祥非, 游家鑫, 梁偉光 (2015, FEB). 量身微調你的大腦. Scientific America (科學人雜誌), 156, 36-39.
  6. Jingting Zhao, Wei-Kuang Liang, Chi-Hung Juan, Lin Wang, Suiping Wang, Zude Zhu* (2015, JAN). Dissociated stimulus and response conflict effect in the Stroop task:Evidence from evoked brain potentials and brain oscillations. Biological Psychology, 104, 130-138. (SCI, IF: 3.234; RANK:12/86 in PSYCHOLOGY, EXPERIMENTAL).


  1. Chun-Hao Wang; Chia-Liang Tsai; Philip Tseng; Albert C. Yang; Men-Tzung Lo; Chung-Kang Peng; Hsin-Yi Wang; Neil G. Muggleton; Chi-Hung Juan; Wei-Kuang Liang* (2014, DEC). The association of physical activity to neural adaptability during visuo-spatial processing in healthy elderly adults: A mulitscale entropy analysis. Brain and Cognition, 92, 73-83. (Corresponding Author; SCI, IF: 2.477; Ranking: 27/85 in PSYCHOLOGY, EXPERIMENTAL); Citations: 16.
  2. Lin-Yuan Tseng, Philip Tseng, Wei-Kuang Liang, Daisy L Hung, Ovid JL Tzeng, Neil G Muggleton, Chi-Hung Juan* (2014, NOV). The role of superior temporal sulcus in the control of irrelevant emotional face processing: A transcranial direct current stimulation study. Neuropsychologia, 64, 124-133. (SCI, IF: 3.302; Ranking: 14/85 in PSYCHOLOGY, EXPERIMENTAL); Citations: 11.
  3. Tzu-Yu Hsu, Philip Tseng, Wei-Kuang Liang, Shih-Kuen Cheng, Chi-Hung Juan* (2014, SEP). Transcranial direct current stimulation over right posterior parietal cortex change prestimulus alpha oscillation in visual short-term memory task. NeuroImage, 98, 306-313. (SCI, IF: 6.357; Ranking: 1/14 in NEUROIMAGING); Citations: 46.
  4. Wei-Kuang Liang*, Men-Tzung Lo, Albert C. Yang, Chung-Kang Peng, Shih-Kuen Cheng, Philip Tseng, Chi-Hung Juan* (2014, APR). Revealing the brain's adaptability and the transcranial direct current stimulation facilitating effect in inhibitory control by multiscale entropy. NeuroImage, 90, 218-234. (Co-corresponding Author; SCI, IF: 6.357; Ranking: 1/14 in NEUROIMAGING); Citations: 36.


  1. Philip Tseng, Chi-Fu Chang, Hui-Yan Chiau, Wei-Kuang Liang, Chia-Lun Liu, Tzu-Yu Hsu, Daisy L. Hung, Ovid J. L. Tzeng and Chi-Hung Juan* (2013, AUG). The dorsal attentional system in oculomotor learning of predictive information. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 404. (SCI, IF: 2.895; Ranking: 24/74 in PSYCHOLOGY); Citations: 5.
  2. Wei-Kuang Liang*, Chi-Hung Juan* (2013, JUL). Changes when the brain is stimulated by current. Journal of Neuroscience and Neuroengineering. NSC 101-2811-H-008-011. (Co-corresponding Author).
  3. Yu-Hui Lo, Wei-Kuang Liang, Hon-Wah Lee, Ching-Hsiu Wang, Ovid J. L. Tzeng, Daisy L. Hung, Shih-Kuen Cheng, Chi-Hung Juan* (2013, JUL). The neural development of response inhibition in 5- and 6-year-old preschoolers: an ERP and EEG study. Developmental Neuropsychology, 38(5), 301–316. (SCI, IF: 2.670; Ranking: 27/74 in PSYCHOLOGY); Citations: 7.
  4. Chi Fu Chang, Tzu Yu Hsu, Philip Tseng, Wei-Kuang Liang, Ovid JL Tzeng, Daisy L Hung, Chi‐Hung Juan* (2013, APR). Right Temporoparietal Junction and Attentional Reorienting. Human Brain Mapping. (SCI, IF: 6.924; Ranking: 1/14 in NEUROIMAGING); Citations: 24.


  1. Philip Tseng, Tzu-Yu Hsu, Chi-Fu Chang, Ovid JL Tzeng, Daisy L Hung, Neil G Muggleton, Vincent Walsh, Wei-Kuang Liang, Shih-kuen Cheng, Chi-Hung Juan* (2012, AUG). Unleashing potential: tDCS over the right posterior parietal cortex improves change detection in low-performing individuals. Journal of Neuroscience, 32(31): 10554-10561. (SCI, IF: 6.908; Ranking: 22/252 in NEUROSCIENCES); Citations: 56.
  2. Wei-Kuang Liang, Chi-Hung Juan* (2012, AUG). Modulation of motor control in saccadic behaviors by TMS over the posterior parietal cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 108(3), 741-752. (SCI, IF: 3.301; Ranking: 22/80 in PHYSIOLOGY); Citations: 3.
  3. Philip Tseng, Hui-Yan Chiau, Chia-Lun Liu, Tzu-Yu Hsu, Chi-Fu Chang, Chang-Mao Chao, Wei-Kuang Liang, Chi-Hung Juan* (2012, MAR). Neural Mechanisms of Implicit Visual Probability Learning. Chinese Journal of Psychology. (TSSCI).


  1. Chia-Lun Liu, Philip Tseng, Hui-Yen Chiau, Wei-Kuang Liang, Daisy L Hung, Ovid JL Tzeng, Neil G Muggleton, Chi-Hung Juan* (2011, JUN). The location probability effects of saccade reaction times are modulated in the Frontal Eye Fields but not in the Supplementary Eye Field. Cerebral Cortex, 21(6):1416-1425. (SCI, IF: 6.544; Ranking: 22/244 in NEUROSCIENCES); Citations: 13.

<= 2009

  1. Liang, WK., Wang, MS. (2009). Source reconstruction of brain electromagnetic fields — Source iteration of minimum norm (SIMN). NeuroImage, 47: 1301-1311 (SCI, IF: 5.739).
  2. Wang, MS., Liang, WK. (1993). Comment on "Repeated measurement of stochastic mechanics". Physical Review D, 48. 1875-1878.


  • 2021 FUTEX Futuretech Award, Ministry of Science and Technology (2021科技部未來科技獎)
  • 2018  Academic Research Award, National Central University (中央大學107年度學術研究傑出獎)
  • 2016  New Faculty Excellence Award, National Central University (中央大學105年度新聘傑出教研人員獎)
  • 2014  Excellent Teaching Award, the College of Health Science and Technology, National Central University (中央大學生醫理工學院103年度院教學優良教師)

博士生 (PhD students):
蔡忠志 Chong-Chih Tsai

碩士生 (Master students):
顏廷安 Ting-An Yen

博士級研究助理 (Postdoctoral fellow):
黃時霖 Shih-Lin Huang