張智宏
副教授

auda@ncu.edu.tw
研究室: 中央大學科五館 601
TEL: (03) 4227151#65209
FAX: (03) 4263502

http://acl.ncu.edu.tw/neuroimaging/wiki/index.php/Erik_Chang

學歷
美國萊斯大學 心理學系博士 (2000.06-2005.01)
國立中正大學 心理學系碩士 (1996.09-1998.06)
國立台灣大學 心理學系學士 (1992.09-1996.06)

經歷
加拿大西安大略大學 心理學系 博士後研究員(2005.01-2006.12)

學術專長
人類行動控制
視覺注意力
視覺知覺
老化與認知

目前研究方向
目前研究方向主要透過行為實驗法與功能性核磁共振造影技術(fMRI)探討「人類運動控制系統與認知系統之間的互動」及「老化對認知與行動能力(例如心智地圖、空間記憶以及手部運動控制)的影響」。

指導課程
  • 人類運動控制
  • 認知能力訓練與老化
  • 電腦在認知神經科學之應用
  • 功能性磁振造影之原理與資料分析

    獎項
  • 2010 國立中央大學優良導師獎
  • 2006 德國腦皮層之高階運動認知功能研討會贊助與會獎金
  • 2005 加拿大國家衛生研究院 ( CIHR ) 博士後研究人員策略訓練獎學金
  • 2005 美國心理學社暨認知領域研究所聯盟優秀論文獎
  • 2005 美國心理學會優秀論文獎
  • 2004 美國認知神經科學暑期學校獎學金

    整合研究計畫
  • 以功能性磁振造影探討提示影響下之感覺動作與數量強度表徵(NSC-103-2420-H-008-006-MY2)
  • 「他物中心」與「自我中心」參考座標系之人類腦部處理機制探討(NSC-101-2410-H-008-035-MY2)

    碩士班學生
  • 碩三:
  • 林美靜(lmj99820@gmail.com)
  • 碩二:
  • Satyasambit Rath(satyasambitrath@gmail.com)
  • 碩一:
  • 李子伶

    著作
     
    1. Lin, M.-J. & Chang, E. C.(2018).A Taiwan Norm for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis  
    2. Chikara, R. K.Chang, E. C., Lu, Y.-C., Lin, D.-S., Lin, C.-T., &Ko, L.-W.(2018).Monetary Reward and Punishment to Response Inhibition Modulate Activation and Synchronization Within the Inhibitory Brain Network.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
    3. Chang, E.C., Chu, C.-H., Karageorghis, C. I., Wang C.-C., Tsai, J. H.-C., Wang, Y.-S., & Chang, Y.-K(2017).Relationship between mode of sport training and general cognitive performance.Journal of Sport and Health Science  
    4. Shen, S. J., Yau, C.-Y., & Chang, E. C.(2016).Effects of Aerobic Training Intensity on Executive Functions in Middle-to-Old Age Adults.體育學報 Physical Education Journal  
    5. Ko, L.-W.*, Shih, Y.-C., Chikara, R. K., Chuang, Y. T., & Chang, E. C.*(2016).Neural Mechanisms of Inhibitory Response in a Battlefield Scenario: A Simultaneous fMRI-EEG Study.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience  
    6. Chiou, S.-C. & Chang, E. C(2016).Bimanual coordination learning with different augmented feedback modalities and information type.PLOS ONE  
    7. Chen, H.-Y., Chang, E. C., Chen, S., Lin, Y.-C., & Wu, D(2016).Functional and anatomical dissociation between the orthographic lexicon and the orthographic buffer revealed in reading and writing Chinese characters by fMRI. NeuroImage  
    8. Chang, E. C., Chu, C. H., Karageorghis, C. I., Wang, C. C., Tsai, J H., Wang, Y. S., Chang, Y. K.*(2015).Relationship between mode of sport training and general cognitive performance.Journal of Sport and Health Science  
    9. Chang, Y-. K., Tsai, J. H-. C., Wang, C-.C., Chang, E. C.* Structural differences in basal ganglia of elite running versus martial arts athletes: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Experimental Brain Research. [E-pud ahead of print] 2015,05. (SCI)  
    10. Lin, M.-W., Lee, M.W., Chang, E. C., & Chen, Y.-C. Flicker-glare and visual-comfort assessments of light emitting diode billboards II: color display. Applied Optics. 54(13), 4089-4096. 2015,04. (SCI)  
    11. Lin, M.-W., Hsieh, P.-H., Chang, E. C., & Chen, Y.-C. Flicker-glare and visual-comfort assessments of light emitting diode billboards. Applied Optics. 53(22), E61-E68. 2014,07.(SCI)  
    12. Erik C. Chang*, J. Randall Flanagon, Melvyn A. Goodale. The intermanual transfer of anticipatory force control in precision grip lifting is not influenced by the perception of weight. Experimental Brain Research. 185(2), 319-329. 2008,02. (SCI)  
    13. Chang, E., Ro, T. Maintenance of visual stability in the human posterior parietal cortex. JOURNAL OF COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE. 19(2), 266-274. 2007,02. (SCI)  
    14. Olk, B., Chang, E., Ro, T., Kingstone, A. Modulation of antisaccades by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human frontal eye field. CEREBRAL CORTEX. 16(1), 1676-1682. 2006,01. (SCI)  
    15. Ro, T., Shelton, D., Lee, O., & Chang, E. Extrageniculate mediation of unconscious vision in TMS induced blindsight. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101(26), 9933-9935. 2004,06. (SCI)  
    16. Chang, E., Ro, T. Inhibition of return in perception and action. VISUAL COGNITION. 12(3), 443-472. 2005,03. (SSCI)  
    17. Ro, T., Farne, A., & Chang, E. Inhibition of return and the human frontal eye field. Experimental Brain Research. 150(3), 290-296. 2003,04. (SCI)  
    18. Ro, T., Farne, A., & Chang, E. Locating the human frontal eye field with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 24(7), 930-940. 2002,07. (SCI)  
    19. Tzeng, Ovid J.-L.; Lee, Chia-Ying; Ren Lee, Jun; Wu, Denise H.; Juan, Chi-Hung; Cheng, Shih-Kuen; Lee, Rose R. W.; Huang, Chih-Mao; Kuo, Nissen W.-J.; Chang, Erik C.; Hung, Daisy L. Cognitive Neuroscience in the 21st Century: A Selective Review of Prominent Research Topics and Applications. Journal of Neuroscience and Neuroengineering, 2(4), 364–381. 2013,08.
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    20. Chiou, R., Wu, D. H., Hung, D. L., Tzeng, O. J. L., &, Chang, E*, "Relative size of numerical magnitude induces a size-contrast effect on the grip scaling of reach-to-grasp movements", Cortex, 48(8), 1043-1051, 2012,09.(SCI)(NSC99-2410-H-008-008-65)  
    21. Lin, C.-T., Huang, T.-Y., Lin, W.-J., Chang, S.-Y., Lin, Y.-H., Ko, L.-W., Hung, D. L., Chang, E. C., "Gender differences in wayfinding in virtual environments with global or local landmarks", Journal of Environmental Psychology, 32(2), 89-96, 2012,06.(SCI) (NSC96-2413-H-008-003-MY3)
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    22. Chiou, R. Y. C., Chang, E. C., Tzeng, O. J. L., & *Wu, D. H., "The common magnitude code underlying numerical and size processing for action but not for perception", Experimental Brain Research, 194(4), 553-562, 2009,04.(SCI) (NSC96-2413-H-008-003-MY3)
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    23. Chouinard, P. A., Large, M., Chang, E., & Goodale, M. A., "Dissociable neural mechanisms for determining the perceived heaviness of objects and the predicted weight of objects during lifting: an fMRI investigation of the size-weight illusion", Neuroimage, 44(1), 200-212, 2009,01.(SCI)
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    會議論文摘要
     
    1. Chang, E. C., Lin, M.-J., Li, T.-L., Tsai, S-. U. & Wu, H. D.(2018,October).GABA Concentration Relates Differentially with Voluntary and Involuntary Inhibition: A MR Spectroscopy Study  
    2. Li, T.-L., & Chang, E.C(2018,March).Characterizing the Impact of Aging on the Interaction between Controlled and Automatic Inhibition  
    3. Shen, S.-C., Cheng, R. P. C., Yao C.-Y., & Chang, E. C.(2018,January).Big Data Reveal Positive Relationship between Performance in Physical Education and Other Academic Domains  
    4. Li, T.-L., & Chang, E. C.(2018,January). Characterizing the Impact of Aging on the Interaction between Controlled and Automatic Inhibition  
    5. Li, T.-L., & Chang, E. C.(2017,September).Characterizing the Impact of Aging on Automatic Inhibition  
    6. Chang, E. C.*, Lin, M.-J., & Wu, D. H.(2017,September).The Modulation of Number-Response Mapping By Hypnotic Suggestion  
    7. Lin, M.-J., & Chang, E. C(2017,March).The Conversion across Magnitude and Rank Forms of Numerical Representation  
    8. Li, T.-L., & Chang, E. C. (2017, January). The Effect of Aging on the Time Course of Negative Priming  
    9. Chang, E. C.(2016,October).Aging and training: Current status and future directions  
    10. Chang, E. C. & Kuo, L.-W., & Wu, W. Y.(2016,July). Sports-specific Experiences Influence Manual Skill Learning in A Force Field  
    11. Lin, M.-J. & Chang, E. C.(2016, June). An FMRI Investigation of the Malleable Numerical Representations under Hypnotic Suggestions  
    12. Lin, S., Chou, Y.-T., & Chang, E. C(2016, January).Size-weight illustion in virtual objects: An Investigatgion with force feedback device  
    13. Lin, M. J., & Chang, E. C(2016, January). The SNARC effect and FoNARC effect under hypnotic suggestion  
    14. Li, T.-L., & Chang, E. C(2016,January).The effect of aging on the binding process of the iconic memory  
    15. Guo, L. W., & Chang, E. C(2016, January). The effect of sport training on eye-hand coordination and force control  
    16. Chang, E. C., Yao, Z.-F., Liang, Y.-M., Chen, K.-J., & Chiu, Y.-H.(2015,November).Diversity of Cognitive Performance Among Static, Strategic and Interceptive Sport Expertise  
    17. Lin, M.-J.*, & Chang, E. C.(2015,October).Building the Taiwanese Database of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility  
    18. Li, T-L. & Chang, E. C.(2015,October).The effect of aging on the iconic memory with binding processing.  
    19. Chang, E. C.* & Wu, D. H. (2015, June). Comparison of BOLD responses in individuals with differential preference in spatial reference frames. 2015 Organization for Human Brain Mapping. Hawaii, USA.  
    20. Lung, T. C.*, & Chang, E. C. (2015, March). Training and transfer effects of unpredictable task-switching. 2015 International Convention of Psychological Science. Amsterdam, Netherlands.  
    21. Chang, E. C.* (2015, March). Cognitive ageing: Parametric changes in motor and executive functions. 2015 International Convention of Psychological Science. Amsterdam, Netherlands.  
    22. Lin, M.-J.*, & Chang, E. C. (2014, November). Differential auditory SNARC effect in young adults along the spectrum of hypnotizability. 1st Annual Meeting of Joint Research Center For Language and Human Complexity. Hong Kong, China.  
    23. Chiou, S.-C.* & Chang, E. C. (2014, November). Bimanual coordination learning with different feedback modalities and information types. 1st Annual Meeting of Joint Research Center for Language and Human Complexity. Hong Kong, China.  
    24. Yao, Z.-F.*, & Chang, E. C. (2014, November). Effects of Ageing on Cognitive Control and Visual Search. 1st Annual Meeting of the Joint Research Centre for Language Human Complexity. Hong Kong, China.  
    25. Lin, M.-J.*, & Chang, E. C. (2014, September). Differential auditory SNARC effect in young adults along the spectrum of hypnotizability. 2014 Annual Meeting of Taiwanese Psychological Association. Taipei, Taiwan.  
    26. Yao, Z.-F.*, & Chang, E. C. (2014, September). Influence of Ageing and Physical Activity on Cognitive Control and Visual Search. 2014 Annual Meeting of the Taiwanese Psychology Association. Taipei, Taiwan.  
    27. Chiou, S.-C.* & Chang, E. C. (2014, July). Guidance or interference? Augmented feedback benefits bimanual coordination even after removal. 10th Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision. Takamatsu, Japan.  
    28. Chang, E., Hsieh, J., & Wu, S. (2014, April). Risk-Seeking Attitude Manifested via Overvaluation of Rewards Rather than Biased Weighting of Probability in Sensorimotor Tasks. Poster to be presented in the 2014 Annual Meeting of Cognitive Neuroscience Society, Boston, MA, USA.  
    29. Yi-Chun Chen*, Erik C. Chang, Pin-Hsuan Hsieh, Han Chen, Shih-Hsun Hsu, and Bo-Jhih Shen. (2013, December). LEDs in general lighting: Photobiological safety and visual ergonomic assessments. OPTIC 2013. Taoyuan, Taiwan.  
    30. Meng-Wei Lin, Pin-Hsuan Hsieh, Erik C. Chang, and Yi-Chun Chen* (2013, December). Investigation of flicker glare and visual comfort of LED billboards. OPTIC 2013. Taoyuan, Taiwan.  
    31. Han Chen, Erik C. Chang, Darren Chen, Roland Chiang, Barry Chen, and Yi-Chun Chen* (2013, December). Comparisons of office lighting by LED and fluorescent tubes on visual fatigue and comfort. Taoyuan, Taiwan.  
    32. Pin-Hsuan Hsieh, Erik C. Chang, Darren Chen, Roland Chiang, Barry Chen, and Yi-Chun Chen* (2013, December). Visual ergonomic evaluations of AC-LED lighting with different flicker frequencies. OPTIC 2013. Taoyuan, Taiwan.  
    33. P. H. Hsieh, M. W. Lin, E. C. Chang, and Y. C. Chen* (2013, April). Flicker and visual comfort evaluations of LED panel display. Proceedings of CIE Centenary Conference: Towards a New Century of Light. Paris, France.  
    34. Chang, E. C. & Wang, J. Y-.S. (2013, November). Differential modulation of attentional networks in the elderly by physical activity. Poster to be presented at the 2013 Annual Meeting of Society for Neuroscience. San Diego, California, USA.  
    35. P. H. Hsieh, E. C. Chang, and Y. C. Chen* (2012, June). Evaluation of AC-LED lighting flicker on visual fatigue and comfort. The 13th International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Lighting (LS13). Troy, New York.  
    36. S. C. Shan, P. H. Hsieh, G. T. Yan, E. C. Chang, and Y. C. Chen* (2012, March). Visual ergonomic evaluations of fluorescent lamps with different correlated colour temperatures. The International Workshop of Solid-state Lighting with Human Factors Technology. Taoyuan, Taiwan.  
    37. Chang, E. C. (2012; October). Majority search function in the elderly and the young populations. Oral presentation in the 51th Annual Meeting of the Taiwanese Psychology Association, Taichung, Taiwan (supported by NSC-101-2410-H-008-035-MY2 and NSC-100-2628-H-008-008).  
    38. Mattaloni, E., Huang, H., Hung, D., Gerbino, W., & Chang, E. C. (2012, June). Functional brain activities for self-reference effect on observing writing traces. Poster presented in the 18th Annual meeting of the Organization of Human Brain Mapping, Beijing, China. (supported by NSC-100-2628-H-008-008 and NSC-100-2911-I-009-101).  
    39. Wang, Y. S., Fong, D. Y., Hung, D., & Chang, E. C. (2012, June). Relationship among elderly’s attentional brain networks, physical activity, and body composition. Poster presented in the 18th Annual meeting of the Organization of Human Brain Mapping, Beijing, China. (supported by NSC-100-2628-H-008-008 and NSC-100-2911-I-009-101).  
    40. Chang, E. C., Yao, C. Y., & Shan, H. J. (2011; October). The chronic and acute influence of aerobic exercise on central executive functions. Oral presentation in the 50th Annual Meeting of the Taiwanese Psychology Association, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (supported by NSC-100-2628-H-008-008).  
    41. Tang, C. H. & Chang, E. C. (2011, July). How do parameters of motor response influence selective inhibition? Evidence from the stop?signal paradigm. Poster presented in the 7th Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision, Hong Kong, China (supported by NSC99-2410-H008-065 and NSC-99-2911-I-009-101).  
    42. Chang, E. C., Lin, C. T., Huang, H., Huang, T. Y., Tzeng, O. J., & Hung, D. L. (2011, September). Social-evaluative stress differentially modulates brain activities for mixing and switching costs. Poster presented in the 17th meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, San Sebastian, Spain (supported by NSC 100-2628-H008 -008 and NSC-99-2911-I-009-101).  
    43. Lin, W. J., Huang, T. Y., Lin, C. T., Hung, D. L., & Chang, E. C. (2011, April). Differential theta oscillation for human wayfinding in virtual environments with global vs. local object landmarks: An EEG study. Poster presented in the 2011 annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, San Francisco, California, USA (supported by NSC99-2410-H008-065 and NSC-99-2911-I-009-101).  
    44. Lung, T. Z., & Chang E. C. (2010, November). Training and transfer of task switching. Oral presentation in the 49th Annual Meeting of the Taiwanese Psychology Association, National Chung-Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan. (supported by NSC99-2410-H008-065).  
    45. Hsieh, J. J., & Chang, E. C. (2010, July). Tool-use and the extension of peripersonal space: Is temporal synchronization sufficient? Poster to be presented in the 2010 Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision, Taipei, Taiwan (NSC 96-2413-H-008-003-MY3).  
    46. Lin, W. J., & Chang, E. C. (2010, July). Influence of regularity of geometric structures and types of object landmarks on wayfinding behavior. Poster to be presented in the 2010 Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision, Taipei, Taiwan (NSC 96-2413-H-008-003-MY3).  
    47. Lin, C. T., Huang, T. Y., Wang, C. H., Lin, W. J., Ko, L. W., Chang, E. C. (2010, June). Gender-specific contextual differences in human theta oscillations during spatial navigation in VE. Poster to be presented in the 16th Annual meeting of the Organization of Human Brain Mapping, Barcelona, Spain (NSC 96-2413-H-008-003-MY3).  
    48. Chang, E. C. (2010, April). Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals associated with the processing of global and local landmarks in human wayfinding behavior. Poster submitted to the 17th Annual Cognitive Neuroscience Society Meeting, Montreal, Canada.  
    49. Lung, T. Z. & Chang, E. (2009, September). Differential influences of task difficulty on mixing and switching costs in univalent task switching. Oral presentation in the 48th Annual Meeting of the Taiwan Psychological Association, Taipei, Taiwan (NSC96-2627-E009-001).  
    50. Chang, E. & Li, H. C. (2009, July). Sex differences in attentional orienting to informative central and peripheral cues. Poster presented in the 2009 Cognitive Science meeting, Amsterdam, Netherland.  
    51. Chang, E. & Li, H. C. (2009, June). He or she looks into your eyes differently: Gender difference in the spatial orienting induced by eye gaze. Oral presentation at the14th Attention and Perception Conference, National Chung-Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan.  
    52. Lin, W. J., Huang, T. Y., Lin, C. T., Hung, D. L., & Chang, E. (2009, May). The contributions of global and local object landmarks in human wayfinding behavior. Poster presented in the 2009 Vision Science Society Annual Meeting, Naples, Florida, USA.  
    53. 張智宏、鍾奇維、洪蘭、陳俊嶧、鄒忻芸、黃郁雯、林彥成、吳毅成。(2009, 一月)。網路遊戲平台在認知能力訓練之應用。「智慧生活科技區域整合中心計畫」暨「前瞻優質生活環境計畫」聯合成果發表會演講報告。國立台灣大學,台北。(NSC96-2627-E009-001)  
    54. 林雯菁、 黃騰毅、柯立偉、洪蘭、張智宏。(2009, 一月)。以虛擬實境探討全域性與局部性地標對空間巡行能力訓練的貢獻。「智慧生活科技區域整合中心計畫」暨「前瞻優質生活環境計畫」聯合成果發表會演講報告。國立台灣大學,台北。(NSC96-2627-E009-001)  
    55. 張智宏、鍾奇維。(2009, 一月)。高齡者認知能力與日常生活困擾調查。「智慧生活科技區域整合中心計畫」暨「前瞻優質生活環境計畫」聯合成果發表會演講報告。國立台灣大學,台北。(NSC96-2627-E009-001)  
    56. Chiou, R., Chang, E., Wu, D. H., Hung, D. L., & Tzeng, O. J. L. (2008, July). The commonality and specificity of magnitude codes for number processing, prehension, and perceptual size judgment. Poster to be presented in the 2008 Asia Pacific Conference of Vision, Brisbane, Australia (Supported by NSC96-2413-H008-003-MY3).  
    57. Lin, W. J., Yu, B., Huang, T. Y., Lin, C. T., Hung, D. L., Tzeng, O. J. L., & Chang, E. (2008, June). Human spatial navigation in virtual environment: The contributions of different types of landmarks. Talk to be presented in the 2008 Symposium on Digital Life Technologies: Human- Centric Smart Living Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (Supported by NSC96-2627-E009-001).  
    58. Han, J., Hung, D. L., Tzeng, O. J. L., & Chang, E. (2008, June). Does unconscious observation of manual actions induce action priming? Poster to be presented in the 12th Annual Meeting of Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness, Taipei. Taiwan.  
    59. Chouinard, P., Large, M. E., Chang, E., & Goodale, M. A. (2007, November). Neural correlates of size-weight illusion. Poster presented in the 2007 Annual meeting of Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, USA.  
    60. Han, J., Chang, E., Hung, D. L., & Tzeng, O. J. L. (2007, July). Exploring inversion effect in the perception of hand point-light motion. Talk presented in the 12th Workshop on attention and perception. Chia-Yi, Taiwan.  
    61. Li, H. C., Chang, E., Hung, D. L., & Tzeng, O. J. L. (2007, July). Can numerical cues induce inhibition of return? Talk presented in the 12th Workshop on attention and perception. Chia-Yi, Taiwan.  
    62. Chiou, R. Y. C., Chang, E., Wu, D. H., Hung, D. L., & Tzeng, O. J. L. (2007, July). Motor imagery of grasping influences numerical processing. Talk presented in the 12th Workshop on attention and perception. Chia-Yi, Taiwan.  
    63. Chang, E., Hampson, E., Valyear, K., & Goodale, M. A. (2006, May). Sex differences in the cortical control of manual praxis. Poster presented in Symposium on Cortical Control of Higher Motor Cognition, Lubeck, Germany.  
    64. Chang, E. & Goodale, M. A. (2006, May). Grip force dissociated from size-weight illusion when lifting from other hand. Poster presented in the 2006 annual meeting of Vision Science Society, Sarasota, Florida, USA.  
    65. Chang, E., & Ro, T. (2005). A posterior parietal contribution to saccadic suppression of displacement. Poster to be presented in 2005 Cognitive Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting, New York, U.S.A.  
    66. Ro, T., Shelton, D., Lee, O., & Chang, E. (2004). Extrageniculate mediation of unconscious vision in TMS induced blindsight. Poster presented in 2004 Cognitive Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting, San Francisco, U.S.A.  
    67. Olk, B., Chang, E., Ro, T., & Kingstone, A. (2003). The role of the frontal eye field in pro- and antisaccades: a TMS study. Poster presented in the 12th European Conference on Eye Movements, Dundee, Scotland.  
    68. Ro, T., Farne, A., & Chang, E. (2002, April). Inhibition of return and the human frontal eye field. Poster presented in 2002 Cognitive Neuroscience Society Annual Meeting, San Francisco, U.S.A.  
    69. Chang, E., & Ro, T. (2001, November). Inhibition of return: Effects on temporal and spatial measures of perception and action. Poster presented in 2001 Psychonomic Society 42nd Annual Meeting, Orlando, U.S.A.  
    70. Chang, E., & Ro, T. (2001, October). Inhibition of return in perception and action. “Armadillo” Conference, Dallas, Texas, U.S.A.  
    71. Tzeng, O. J. L., Hung, D. L., & Chang, E. C. (1998, July). Script, speech, and cerebral organization: A myth and its resolution. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Literacy and the Evolution of Writing System, Seoul, Korea.  
    72. Chang, C. H., & Wang, W. C. (1997, May). Rasch analysis of differential item functioning. Paper presented at the International Conference of Educational and Psychological Testing on Instruction and Research, Taipei, Taiwan.  
    73. Yeh, S., & Chang, C. (1997, May). Figural aftereffects: Adaptation to location or orientation? Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 38(4), S632.  

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