研究生姓名 : 邱佳寧
學年度 : 106
論文題目 : The Effects of Challenge, Hindrance Pressure, and Sports Participation on Flanker Task and Executive Task Performance Investigated Using the Drift Diffusion Model
英文論文題目 : The Effects of Challenge, Hindrance Pressure, and Sports Participation on Flanker Task and Executive Task Performance Investigated Using the Drift Diffusion Model
指導教授 : 馬杰仁
系所名稱 : 認知神經科學研究所
論文頁數 : 186
中文關鍵字 : 開放式運動、閉鎖式運動、壓力、旁側夾擊作業、轉換作業、擴散理論
英文關鍵字 : open-skill sport、close-skill sport、pressure、flanker task、switching task、drift diffusion model
中文摘要 :
運動類型可分為開放式技巧運動 (open-skill sport) 與閉鎖式技巧運動 (close-skill sport),而開放式技巧運動又包含策略型運動 (strategic sports) 與截擊式運動 (interceptive sports);閉鎖式技巧運動又稱為靜態式運動 (static sports)。過去文獻發現運動訓練對於認知功能具有許多幫助,相較於非運動員,運動員具有較好的認知功能如注意力、記憶力、決策能力等。而運動員努力訓練只為了爭取在運動場上的好成績,但壓力對於運動員扮演著極重要的角色,並對運動表現有著極大的影響。本論文將探討壓力對於不同運動項目認知表現的影響:針對三種不同類型的壓力源──挑戰型壓力 (challenge stress)、阻力型壓力 (hindrance stress) 與作業困難度壓力,對旁側夾擊作業 (flanker task) 與轉換作業 (switching task) 的影響。受試者包含控制組、運動組與排球組:控制組為坐式族群或無運動習慣者;運動組包含從事游泳與跑步族群,並歸類為閉鎖式技巧運動;而排球組則被歸類為開放式技巧運動。分析上採用擴散理論 (drift diffusion model),包含反應時間分布圖型及決策域值 (decision threshold),用以更準確地分析決策結果,並避免對於速度與準度不共存 (speed- accurate tradeoff) 的問題產生,進一步剖析決策能力在壓力下的結果。
針對挑戰型壓力的影響,在實驗ㄧ進行時間壓力與側旁夾擊作業,探討時間壓力對於不同運動類型下注意力的影響。對於阻力型壓力的影響,則在實驗二結合視覺觀察 (video observation) 與時間壓力之操弄,探討不同壓力類型對於運動技巧與體能下的影響。從實驗ㄧ與實驗二之結果發現,時間壓力會使決策域值 (threshold separation)、非決策時間 (non-decision time) 與決策速度 (drift rate) 下降,而排球組則對於側旁干擾訊息有較好的處理能力,但從實驗二並無發現視覺觀察的影響;即在挑戰型壓力下,較好的體能有較快的決策速度。而針對作業困難度壓力,實驗三則利用轉換作業測驗,以不同轉換試驗作為不同難度的壓力,以此探討壓力對於認知功能轉換的影響。從實驗三結果發現,較好的體能對於轉換作業中,具有較好的準確度表現。而在不同困難度壓力結果中發現,較簡單的轉換作業會具有較低的決策域值、非決策時間與較快的決策速度;但在難度較高的轉換作業則會具有較高的決策域值、非決策時間以及較低的決策速度。最後從實驗ㄧ到三,本研究發現相較於控制組與運動組,開放式技巧運動—排球組在不同的壓力源下操弄下,對旁側夾擊作業與轉換作業皆具有較好的表現結果。
英文摘要 :
Sports can be classified as open-skill sport (strategic and interceptive sports) or closed-skill sports (static sports). Several review papers have provided an overview of the beneficial effects of fitness training on cognitive function and athletes train hard to fight to achieve good performance. However, pressure could be an important issue that would change sports performance. This thesis tried to gain a better understanding of the influence of pressure on cognitive performance and how this can be altered by different sports engagement. Nonsporting controls were compared to an exercise groups, including swimmers and runners (closed-skill, predictable action sports) and a volleyball group (an open-skill, unpredictable action sport) on tasks with three different pressure manipulations: challenge stress; hindrance stress; and task difficulty. These were used to investigate performance on the flanker tasks and an executive task.
The drift diffusion model (DDM) which negates problems such as speed-accuracy tradeoffs in cognitive tasks, and provides more specific measurement of aspects of performance, such as the rate at which decisions are made and the decision threshold was specially used to quantify the effects of stress on performance.
In Experiment 1, the flanker task in conjunction with a time pressure manipulation was used to investigate how such pressure may influence attention. In Experiment 2, video observation combined with time pressure was used to investigate whether this different stressor influenced decision-making performance and whether this interacted with sporting expertise and fitness. Drift diffusion model analysis of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that time pressure induced reduced threshold separation, non-decision time and decreased drift rate. Higher fitness levels were associate with faster speed to make a decision under time pressure. The volleyball group seem to have a better ability to process the flanker information which may be a consequence of the characteristics of the sport. No effect of observation was found (Experiment 2
In Experiment 3, task switching with stress manipulation caused by different switch levels, was investigated to evaluate a cognitive equivalent of motor switching and flexibility. The results showed that higher fitness levels led to performing more accurately in the task switch condition. The manipulation of task difficulty resulted in a lower threshold separation and non-decision time but a faster drift rate in a relatively simple task, but higher criteria, non-decision time and lower drift rate in the difficult task. Overall, in addition to performing better on cognitive tasks, the open skill sport (volleyball) group had better performance than nonsporting and exercise group when under different pressure manipulations.
 
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