研究生姓名 : 宣恩盈
學年度 : 103
論文題目 : 視知覺相關能力以及統計學習能力對中文識字學習的影響:來自以中文為母語或外語學習者的證據
英文論文題目 :
指導教授 : 吳嫻
系所名稱 : 認知神經科學研究所
論文頁數 : 99
中文關鍵字 :
英文關鍵字 :
中文摘要 :
在先前探索和識字發展有關之認知因素的研究中,已經累積了大量研究結果支持音韻、字形及詞素覺識等能力的重要性,而另外有些相較於前者更基礎根本性的認知能力(例如:視覺相關能力),或是一些對不同領域之學習可能皆有影響的一般性能力(例如:統計學習能力),則是在近年來開始逐漸受到重視。但目前這些因素對於識字歷程的影響,大都在以拼音文字為刺激材料的研究中探討,其受試者也多為母語學習者,因此其結果是否能類推到中文的識字歷程、甚至是外語學習者身上,尚無定論。有鑑於此,本研究進行了四個實驗,檢驗各種認知因素對於習得中文字歷程的影響。具體而言,在本研究實驗一到三的橫斷性研究中,我們招募了160位台灣國小學童、63位台灣成人大學生、140位在台灣學習中文但母語為拼音文字的成年外籍生,進行了一系列的認知作業,用以測量哪些認知因子可顯著預測受試者的中文學習表現。而結果顯示,在以中文為母語或外語學習者的身上,都可觀察到視覺相關能力和視覺統計學習能力對於中文學習者的學習表現有著顯著的影響力,但這些因素並不影響已經成熟之中文讀者的識字表現。在本研究的實驗四中,我們針對68位在台灣學習中文但母語為拼音文字的成年外籍生進行長期追蹤;儘管持續學習組的中文進步幅度較停止學習組大,但視覺統計學習能力的優劣僅和沒有繼續透過正式課程學習中文之外籍生的中文字彙改變量有顯著的相關。根據以上結果,本研究支持視覺相關能力和視覺統計學習能力對於中文字習得歷程的重要性,這些因素也同時影響母語學習者和外語學習者的識字量進步幅度。
英文摘要 :
Previous research showed that literacy acquisition of native readers was affected by phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness. Besides, some other basic cognitive abilities (for example, visual perceptual abilities), or domain genernal abilities (such as statistical learning abilities) played a key role in learning to read, too. However, most of these studies were based on native learners of alphabetic languages. It was unclear whether the correlation could be replicated in learning a second language or learning a non-alphabetic language. In the present study, we conducted four experiments to examine whether the fundamental ability of visual perceptual skills, as well as the ability of detecting regularities in sequential stimuli, would predict the performance of first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) learners in Chinese literacy tests.
A battery of cognitive tests and Chinese literacy tests were administered to 160 elementary students, 63 native college students, and 140 foreigner students whose native languages were alphabetic ones and learned Chinese as L2 in Experiment 1 to 3, respectively. The result showed that the abilities of visual perceptual skills and statistical learning of visual stimuli (VSL) affected the performance of Chinese literacy tests in L1 and L2 leaners, but did not affect the Chinese performance of participants who are mature Chinese readers.
In Experiment 4, we followed 68 native speakers of alphabetic languages recruited in Experiment 3 to examine the potential factors that have influence on the improvement of Chinese literacy after six months. Among these participants, the students who continued to take formal Chinese lessons demonstrated greater improvement in Chinese literacy than the students who did not continue to take formal lessons. However, significant correlation of VSL with the improvement of Chinese character size was only observed in participants who did not continue to take formal Chinese lessons.
To conclude, the current findings suggest that the ability of visual perceptual skills and visual statistical learning are important to Chinese literacy acquisition in both L1 and L2 learners.
 
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