研究生姓名 : 蔡幸吟
學年度 : 102
論文題目 : 以事件相關腦電位探討細節性與概要性記憶的提取導向
英文論文題目 :
指導教授 : 鄭仕坤
系所名稱 : 認知與神經科學研究所
論文頁數 : 70
中文關鍵字 : 情節記憶、事件相關腦電位、記憶提取導向
英文關鍵字 :
中文摘要 :
當欲提取的記憶性質不同時,記憶者會對線索做不同的處理以達到最佳的提取效果,這樣的處理歷程稱為記憶提取導向(retrieval orientation)。過去探討細節性(專一性)記憶以及概要性(一般性)記憶之間記憶提取導向的研究多使用富含視覺線索的圖片做為材料,並發現在提取細節性與概要性記憶時,於前額葉處會誘發不同的腦波。本研究目的在於探討除去了圖片豐富的視覺線索後,是否依舊能夠觀察到提取細節性記憶或概要性記憶時存在有記憶提取導向的效果。實驗中使用分組過的中文雙字詞配對來建立語意之間的連結,在每一輪的學習階段受試者會學習三個列表,每個列表包含相同語意連結的16組雙字詞配對(如:體–和藹, 電視–粗暴, 媒體–冷漠, 電視–冷靜…等屬於一個列表;保母–廟會, 保母–夜市, 嬰兒–人群, 嬰兒–舞獅…等屬於另一個列表)。學習之後的測驗階段搭配腦電波的測量,並區分為細節測驗與概要測驗兩種測驗類型:在要求提取細節性記憶的測驗中,受試者被要求對與學習階段完全相同的雙字詞配對回答是;在要求提取概要性記憶的測驗中,則只要出現的中文雙字詞配對之間,語意連結與學習階段相同即可回答是。實驗一的測驗中採用「肯定是/不肯定是/不肯定否/肯定否」的按鍵判斷,實驗二的測驗中去除了信心判斷,受試者僅做「是/否」的按鍵反應。腦電波結果顯示在前額中央及偏左側處,觀察到細節測驗中腦波較概要測驗更為正走向的記憶提取導向效果,此結果顯示提取細節性或概要性記憶時的記憶提取導向,不僅是當材料包含視覺性線索時有效,使用文字材料將線索集中在概念層面時,依舊可以觀察到記憶提取導向的效果。
英文摘要 :
Previous studies of retrieval orientation using picture stimuli found that the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited in retrieving specific (verbatim) information are more positive going than that in retrieving general (gist) information over the frontal scalp region. To test whether the neural mechanisms underlying this retrieval orientation effect are also involved in retrieving conceptual information, the current experiments used semantically related words as materials. At study, participants were presented with lists of Chinese word pairs formed by pairing one of two associated words with different associates of another concept (e.g., 媒體–和藹, 電視–粗暴, 媒體–冷漠, 電視–冷靜, etc., in one list; 保母–廟會, 保母–夜市, 嬰兒–人群, 嬰兒–舞獅, etc., in another list). At test, participants were presented with old pairs (e.g., 媒體–和藹), intra rearranged pairs (re-pairing study pairs belonging to the same study list, e.g., 嬰兒-廟會), inter rearranged pairs (re-pairing study pairs belonging to different study lists, e.g., 電視-夜市), old-new pairs (an old word paired with a new word, e.g., 保母-書套) and new-new pairs (word pair formed by two new words, e.g., 算盤-冰糖). They were asked to respond ‘old’ to old pairs and intra rearranged pairs in the gist test conditions but only respond ‘old’ to old pairs in the verbatim test conditions. ERPs were acquired during test phases. By comparing ERPs elicited by correct rejected new-new pairs in verbatim and gist memory tests, there was a similar pattern that the signal in verbatim test condition were more positive going at frontal region. The result showed that retrieval orientation between specific and general memory retrieval not only exists when retrieval processes were depended on perceptual information but also when depended on conceptual information.
 
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