研究生姓名 : 謝宜儒
學年度 : 108
論文題目 : 道德決策判斷:以道德基礎理論探討道德基本原則如何形塑個體的政治意識形態、社會議題之態度與司法判決
英文論文題目 : Moral decision making: An examination of moral foundations theory in the formation of political ideology, attitudes toward social issues, and judicial judgments
指導教授 : 段正仁
系所名稱 : 認知神與神經科學研究所
論文頁數 : 144
中文關鍵字 : 道德判斷、道德抉擇、道德基礎理論、司法判斷、政治意識形態
英文關鍵字 : moral judgment、moral choice、moral foundations theory、juducial judgment、political ideology
中文摘要 :
道德是個體用來判斷好壞與對錯的基礎。它不僅會影響在假設情境中的判斷與抉擇,也會影響個體的政治意識形態以及對於各種備受爭議之議題的態度,更甚者,當個體的態度轉變成為實際的懲罰行為,道德依然是一個決定性的因素。研究一探討,面臨犧牲少數人拯救多數人的難題時,不同的決策方式和肢體接觸對於個體的道德決策判斷是否產生影響。共345名參與者完成道德兩難困境。在道德判斷中,個體以非自我中心觀點的方式對事件進行評價時,有無肢體接觸對參與者來說並不影響最後判斷的結果。在道德抉擇中,個體以自我中心的觀點進行評估,行動中是否包含肢體接觸就是個重要的關鍵。研究二探討,在台灣社會中道德觀對於政治意識形態和社會議題的態度。共835位參與者完成道德基本原則問卷、意識形態一致性量表與對於社會議題的立場。自由派的參與者較注重關懷和公平,而保守派的參與者則注重聖潔;注重權威與聖潔的參與者也分別支持實施死刑與反對安樂死。研究三探討個體道德觀對於其司法判斷結果的影響,102位參與者完成道德基本原則問卷以及司法判斷題目。當針對假設的犯罪行為進行量刑,一般民眾比專業法律人士更容易受到年齡與教育程度的影響,也比較容易在參照標準浮動的時候改變量刑,專業法律人士則否。綜合以上,道德觀影響範圍深遠,在個體的態度和行為上也有不同的影響,並具有一定程度上的文化普同性。最後,透過專業訓練,專業法律人士進行司法審判的量刑標準時,可能得以排除與案件無關的干擾因素,進而不受影響。
英文摘要 :
Morality is often described as a compass, that provides directions for good and bad, right and wrong, which may include both universal and subjective aspects. People rely on morality to evaluate situations, make judgments or decisions that lead to behaviors. Study 1 examined the relationship between physical contact and decision type in predicting “harm to save” behavior. In the choice condition only, participants reported significantly less utilitarian responses to the dilemmas that required having physical contact with the person to be harmed than dilemmas that did not require physical contact. This difference was not found in the judgment condition. Study 2 examined the relationships among moral foundations, political ideology, and controversial social issues in an Asian culture. Results indicated that binding foundations (i.e. Ingroup, Authority, and Purity) were associated with conservative tendencies, and individualizing foundations (i.e. Harm and Fairness) were associated with liberal tendencies. Also, participants who scored higher on Authority showed higher approval of death penalty, and those scored higher on Purity showed lower approval of euthanasia. Study 3 examined the associations among moral foundations, judicial judgments, and judgment bias. Results showed that age and education level predicted judgment in the community group only was. This group also registered significant changes to their decisions when the reference point changed, while the legal professional group did not register such change Results from these studies showed the wide range of effects that morality, from conceptual to practical aspects, on decision making, stands on controversial issues, as well as behaviors.
 
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